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effect

  

      n  
1    something that is produced by a cause or agent; result  
2    power or ability to influence or produce a result; efficacy  
with no effect     
3    the condition of being operative (esp. in the phrases in or into effect)  
the law comes into effect at midnight     
4    take effect   to become operative or begin to produce results  
5    basic meaning or purpose (esp. in the phrase to that effect)  
6    an impression, usually one that is artificial or contrived (esp. in the phrase for effect)  
7    a scientific phenomenon  
the Doppler effect     
8    in effect  
a    in fact; actually  
b    for all practical purposes  
9    the overall impression or result  
the effect of a painting     
      vb  
10    tr   to cause to occur; bring about; accomplish,   (See also)        effects  
     (C14: from Latin effectus a performing, tendency, from efficere to accomplish, from facere to do)  
  effecter      n  
  effectible      adj  


Auger effect  
      n   the emission of an electron instead of a photon by an excited ion as a result of a vacancy being filled in an inner electron shell  
     (C20: named after Pierre Auger (1899--1993), French physicist)  
Babinski effect  
      n     (Physiol)   the reflex curling upwards of the toes (instead of inwards) when the sole of the foot is stroked, normal in infants below the age of two but a pathological condition in adults  
     (after Joseph Babinski (1857--1932), French neuropathologist)  
butterfly effect  
      n   the idea, used in chaos theory, that a very small difference in the initial state of a physical system can make a significant difference to the state at some later time  
     (C20: from the theory that a butterfly flapping its wings in one part of the world might ultimately cause a hurricane in another part of the world)  
Compton effect  
      n   a phenomenon in which a collision between a photon and a particle results in an increase in the kinetic energy of the particle and a corresponding increase in the wavelength of the photon  
     (C20: named after A. H. Compton)  
domino effect  
      n   a series of similar or related events occurring as a direct and inevitable result of one initial event  
     (C20: alluding to a row of dominoes, each standing on end, all of which fall when one is pushed: originally used with reference to possible Communist takeovers of countries in SE Asia)  
Doppler effect  
      n   a phenomenon, observed for sound waves and electromagnetic radiation, characterized by a change in the apparent frequency of a wave as a result of relative motion between the observer and the source,   (Also called)    Doppler shift  
     (C19: named after C. J. Doppler (1803--53), Austrian physicist)  
experimenter effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the influence of an experimenter's expectations on his results  
field-effect transistor  
      n   a unipolar transistor consisting of three or more electrode regions, the source, one or more gates, and the drain. A current flowing in a channel between the highly doped source and drain is controlled by the electric field arising from a voltage applied between source and gate,   (Abbrev)    FET      See also       JFET       IGFET  
greenhouse effect  
      n  
1    an effect occurring in greenhouses, etc., in which radiant heat from the sun passes through the glass warming the contents, the radiant heat from inside being trapped by the glass  
2    the application of this effect to a planet's atmosphere; carbon dioxide and some other gases in the planet's atmosphere can absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the planet's surface as a result of exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, thus increasing the mean temperature of the planet  
Gunn effect  
      n   a phenomenon observed in some semiconductors in which a steady electric field of magnitude greater than a threshold value generates electrical oscillations with microwave frequencies  
     (C20: named after John Battiscombe Gunn (born 1928), British physicist)  
Hall effect  
      n   the production of a potential difference across a conductor carrying an electric current when a magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to that of the current flow  
     (named after Edwin Herbert Hall (1855--1938), American physicist who discovered it)  
halo effect  
      n      See       horns and halo effect  
Hawthorne effect  
      n   improvement in the performance of employees, students, etc., brought about by making changes in working methods, resulting from research into means of improving performance  
   Compare       iatrogenic       placebo effect  
     (from the Western Electric Company's Hawthorne works in Chicago, USA, where it was discovered during experiments in the 1920s)  
horns and halo effect  
      n   a tendency to allow one's judgement of another person, esp. in a job interview, to be unduly influenced by an unfavourable (horns) or favourable (halo) first impression based on appearances  
Josephson effect  
      n     (Physics)   any one of the phenomena which occur when an electric current passes through a very thin insulating layer between two superconducting substances. The applications include the very precise standardization of the volt  
     (C20: named after Brian David Josephson (born 1940), English physicist; shared the Nobel prize for physics in 1973)  
Joule effect  
      n     (Physics)  
1    the production of heat as the result of a current flowing through a conductor  
   See       Joule's law  
2    an increase in length of certain ferromagnetic materials when longitudinally magnetized  
Joule-Thomson effect  
      n   a change in temperature of a thermally insulated gas when it is forced through a small hole or a porous material. For each gas there is a temperature of inversion above which the change is positive and below which it is negative,   (Also called)    Joule-Kelvin effect  
     (C20: named after J. P. Joule and Sir William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin)  
Kerr effect  
      n  
1      (Also called)    electro-optical effect   the production of double refraction in certain transparent substances by the application of a strong electric field  
2      (Also called)    magneto-optical effect   a slight elliptical polarization of plane polarized light when reflected from one of the poles of a strong magnet  
     (C19: named after John Kerr (1824--1907), Scottish physicist)  
law of effect  
      n     (Psychol)   another name for Thorndike's Law (see Thorndike, sense 1)  
Meissner effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which magnetic flux is excluded from a substance when it is in a superconducting state, except for a thin layer at the surface  
     (C20: named after Fritz Walther Meissner (1882--1974), German physicist)  
Mössbauer effect     (German)  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which an atomic nucleus in a crystal of certain substances emits a gamma ray without any recoil to the atom. The study of the emitted gamma rays (Mössbauer spectroscopy) is used to determine the energy levels in a nucleus, the structure of molecules, etc.  
     (C20: named after Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (born 1929), German physicist)  
notch effect  
      n     (Metallurgy, building trades)   the increase in stress in an area of a component near a crack, depression, etc., or a change in section, such as a sharp angle: can be enough to cause failure of the component although the calculated average stress may be quite safe  
oxygen effect  
      n     (Biology)   the increased sensitivity to radiation of living organisms, tissues, etc., when they are exposed in the presence of oxygen  
Peltier effect  
      n     (Physics)   the production of heat at one junction and the absorption of heat at the other junction of a thermocouple when a current is passed around the thermocouple circuit. The heat produced is additional to the heat arising from the resistance of the wires  
   Compare       Seebeck effect  
     (C19: named after Jean Peltier (1785--1845), French physicist, who discovered it)  
photoelectric effect  
      n  
1    the ejection of electrons from a solid by an incident beam of sufficiently energetic electromagnetic radiation  
2    any phenomenon involving electricity and electromagnetic radiation, such as photoemission  
photovoltaic effect  
      n   the effect observed when electromagnetic radiation falls on a thin film of one solid deposited on the surface of a dissimilar solid producing a difference in potential between the two materials  
piezoelectric effect   , piezoelectricity  
      n     (Physics)  
a    the production of electricity or electric polarity by applying a mechanical stress to certain crystals  
b    the converse effect in which stress is produced in a crystal as a result of an applied potential difference  
  piezoelectrically      adv  
piezomagnetic effect   , piezomagnetism  
      n     (Physics)  
a    the production of a magnetic field by applying a mechanical stress to certain crystals  
b    the converse effect in which stress is produced in a crystal as a result of an applied magnetic field  
  piezomagnetically      adj  
pinch effect  
      n   the constriction of a beam of charged particles, caused by a force on each particle due to its motion in the magnetic field generated by the movement of the other particles  
placebo effect  
      n     (Med)   a positive therapeutic effect claimed by a patient after receiving a placebo believed by him to be an active drug  
   See       control group  
position effect  
      n   the effect on the phenotype of interacting genes when their relative positions on the chromosome are altered, as by inversion  
primary effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the process whereby the first few items on a list are learnt more rapidly than the middle items  
Raman effect  
      n   the change in wavelength of light that is scattered by electrons within a material. The effect is used in Raman spectroscopy for studying molecules  
     (C20: named after Sir Chandasekhara Raman (1888--1970), Indian physicist)  
ratchet effect  
      n     (Economics)   an effect that occurs when a price or wage increases as a result of temporary pressure but fails to fall back when the pressure is removed  
recency effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the phenomenon that when people are asked to recall in any order the items on a list, those that come at the end of the list are more likely to be recalled than the others  
ripple effect  
      n   the repercussions of an event or situation experienced far beyond its immediate location  
Schottky effect  
      n     (Physics)   a reduction in the energy required to remove an electron from a solid surface in a vacuum when an electric field is applied to the surface  
Seebeck effect     (German)  
      n   the phenomenon in which a current is produced in a circuit containing two or more different metals when the junctions between the metals are maintained at different temperatures,   (Also called)    thermoelectric effect      Compare       Peltier effect  
     (C19: named after Thomas Seebeck (1770--1831), German physicist)  
side effect  
      n  
1    any unwanted nontherapeutic effect caused by a drug  
   Compare       aftereffect       2  
2    any secondary effect, esp. an undesirable one  
skin effect  
      n   the tendency of alternating current to concentrate in the surface layer of a conductor, esp. at high frequencies, thus increasing its effective resistance  
sound effect  
      n   any sound artificially produced, reproduced from a recording, etc., to create a theatrical effect, such as the bringing together of two halves of a hollow coconut shell to simulate a horse's gallop; used in plays, films, etc.  
stage effect  
      n   a special effect created on the stage by lighting, sound, etc.  
thermoelectric effect  
      n      another name for the       Seebeck effect       Peltier effect  
Thomson effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which a temperature gradient along a metallic (or semiconductor) wire or strip causes an electric potential gradient to form along its length  
     (named after Sir William Thomson)  
tunnel effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which an object, usually an elementary particle, tunnels through a potential barrier even though it does not have sufficient energy to surmount the barrier. It is explained by wave mechanics and is the cause of alpha decay, field emission, and certain conduction processes in semiconductors  
Tyndall effect  
      n   the phenomenon in which light is scattered by particles of matter in its path. It enables a beam of light to become visible by illuminating dust particles, etc.  
     (C19: named after John Tyndall)  
Zeeman effect  
      n   the splitting of a spectral line of a substance into several closely spaced lines when the substance is placed in a magnetic field  
     (C20: named after Pieter Zeeman (1865--1943), Dutch physicist)  
English Collins Dictionary - English Definition & Thesaurus  
Collins
shot noise   , effect         
      n   the inherent electronic noise arising in an electric current because of the discontinuous nature of conduction by electrons,   (Also called)    Schottky noise  


Auger effect  
      n   the emission of an electron instead of a photon by an excited ion as a result of a vacancy being filled in an inner electron shell  
     (C20: named after Pierre Auger (1899--1993), French physicist)  
Babinski effect  
      n     (Physiol)   the reflex curling upwards of the toes (instead of inwards) when the sole of the foot is stroked, normal in infants below the age of two but a pathological condition in adults  
     (after Joseph Babinski (1857--1932), French neuropathologist)  
butterfly effect  
      n   the idea, used in chaos theory, that a very small difference in the initial state of a physical system can make a significant difference to the state at some later time  
     (C20: from the theory that a butterfly flapping its wings in one part of the world might ultimately cause a hurricane in another part of the world)  
Compton effect  
      n   a phenomenon in which a collision between a photon and a particle results in an increase in the kinetic energy of the particle and a corresponding increase in the wavelength of the photon  
     (C20: named after A. H. Compton)  
domino effect  
      n   a series of similar or related events occurring as a direct and inevitable result of one initial event  
     (C20: alluding to a row of dominoes, each standing on end, all of which fall when one is pushed: originally used with reference to possible Communist takeovers of countries in SE Asia)  
Doppler effect  
      n   a phenomenon, observed for sound waves and electromagnetic radiation, characterized by a change in the apparent frequency of a wave as a result of relative motion between the observer and the source,   (Also called)    Doppler shift  
     (C19: named after C. J. Doppler (1803--53), Austrian physicist)  
effect         
      n  
1    something that is produced by a cause or agent; result  
2    power or ability to influence or produce a result; efficacy  
with no effect     
3    the condition of being operative (esp. in the phrases in or into effect)  
the law comes into effect at midnight     
4    take effect   to become operative or begin to produce results  
5    basic meaning or purpose (esp. in the phrase to that effect)  
6    an impression, usually one that is artificial or contrived (esp. in the phrase for effect)  
7    a scientific phenomenon  
the Doppler effect     
8    in effect  
a    in fact; actually  
b    for all practical purposes  
9    the overall impression or result  
the effect of a painting     
      vb  
10    tr   to cause to occur; bring about; accomplish,   (See also)        effects  
     (C14: from Latin effectus a performing, tendency, from efficere to accomplish, from facere to do)  
  effecter      n  
  effectible      adj  
experimenter effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the influence of an experimenter's expectations on his results  
field-effect transistor  
      n   a unipolar transistor consisting of three or more electrode regions, the source, one or more gates, and the drain. A current flowing in a channel between the highly doped source and drain is controlled by the electric field arising from a voltage applied between source and gate,   (Abbrev)    FET      See also       JFET       IGFET  
greenhouse effect  
      n  
1    an effect occurring in greenhouses, etc., in which radiant heat from the sun passes through the glass warming the contents, the radiant heat from inside being trapped by the glass  
2    the application of this effect to a planet's atmosphere; carbon dioxide and some other gases in the planet's atmosphere can absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the planet's surface as a result of exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, thus increasing the mean temperature of the planet  
Gunn effect  
      n   a phenomenon observed in some semiconductors in which a steady electric field of magnitude greater than a threshold value generates electrical oscillations with microwave frequencies  
     (C20: named after John Battiscombe Gunn (born 1928), British physicist)  
Hall effect  
      n   the production of a potential difference across a conductor carrying an electric current when a magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to that of the current flow  
     (named after Edwin Herbert Hall (1855--1938), American physicist who discovered it)  
halo effect  
      n      See       horns and halo effect  
Hawthorne effect  
      n   improvement in the performance of employees, students, etc., brought about by making changes in working methods, resulting from research into means of improving performance  
   Compare       iatrogenic       placebo effect  
     (from the Western Electric Company's Hawthorne works in Chicago, USA, where it was discovered during experiments in the 1920s)  
horns and halo effect  
      n   a tendency to allow one's judgement of another person, esp. in a job interview, to be unduly influenced by an unfavourable (horns) or favourable (halo) first impression based on appearances  
Josephson effect  
      n     (Physics)   any one of the phenomena which occur when an electric current passes through a very thin insulating layer between two superconducting substances. The applications include the very precise standardization of the volt  
     (C20: named after Brian David Josephson (born 1940), English physicist; shared the Nobel prize for physics in 1973)  
Joule effect  
      n     (Physics)  
1    the production of heat as the result of a current flowing through a conductor  
   See       Joule's law  
2    an increase in length of certain ferromagnetic materials when longitudinally magnetized  
Joule-Thomson effect  
      n   a change in temperature of a thermally insulated gas when it is forced through a small hole or a porous material. For each gas there is a temperature of inversion above which the change is positive and below which it is negative,   (Also called)    Joule-Kelvin effect  
     (C20: named after J. P. Joule and Sir William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin)  
Kerr effect  
      n  
1      (Also called)    electro-optical effect   the production of double refraction in certain transparent substances by the application of a strong electric field  
2      (Also called)    magneto-optical effect   a slight elliptical polarization of plane polarized light when reflected from one of the poles of a strong magnet  
     (C19: named after John Kerr (1824--1907), Scottish physicist)  
law of effect  
      n     (Psychol)   another name for Thorndike's Law (see Thorndike, sense 1)  
Meissner effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which magnetic flux is excluded from a substance when it is in a superconducting state, except for a thin layer at the surface  
     (C20: named after Fritz Walther Meissner (1882--1974), German physicist)  
Mössbauer effect     (German)  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which an atomic nucleus in a crystal of certain substances emits a gamma ray without any recoil to the atom. The study of the emitted gamma rays (Mössbauer spectroscopy) is used to determine the energy levels in a nucleus, the structure of molecules, etc.  
     (C20: named after Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (born 1929), German physicist)  
notch effect  
      n     (Metallurgy, building trades)   the increase in stress in an area of a component near a crack, depression, etc., or a change in section, such as a sharp angle: can be enough to cause failure of the component although the calculated average stress may be quite safe  
oxygen effect  
      n     (Biology)   the increased sensitivity to radiation of living organisms, tissues, etc., when they are exposed in the presence of oxygen  
Peltier effect  
      n     (Physics)   the production of heat at one junction and the absorption of heat at the other junction of a thermocouple when a current is passed around the thermocouple circuit. The heat produced is additional to the heat arising from the resistance of the wires  
   Compare       Seebeck effect  
     (C19: named after Jean Peltier (1785--1845), French physicist, who discovered it)  
photoelectric effect  
      n  
1    the ejection of electrons from a solid by an incident beam of sufficiently energetic electromagnetic radiation  
2    any phenomenon involving electricity and electromagnetic radiation, such as photoemission  
photovoltaic effect  
      n   the effect observed when electromagnetic radiation falls on a thin film of one solid deposited on the surface of a dissimilar solid producing a difference in potential between the two materials  
piezoelectric effect   , piezoelectricity  
      n     (Physics)  
a    the production of electricity or electric polarity by applying a mechanical stress to certain crystals  
b    the converse effect in which stress is produced in a crystal as a result of an applied potential difference  
  piezoelectrically      adv  
piezomagnetic effect   , piezomagnetism  
      n     (Physics)  
a    the production of a magnetic field by applying a mechanical stress to certain crystals  
b    the converse effect in which stress is produced in a crystal as a result of an applied magnetic field  
  piezomagnetically      adj  
pinch effect  
      n   the constriction of a beam of charged particles, caused by a force on each particle due to its motion in the magnetic field generated by the movement of the other particles  
placebo effect  
      n     (Med)   a positive therapeutic effect claimed by a patient after receiving a placebo believed by him to be an active drug  
   See       control group  
position effect  
      n   the effect on the phenotype of interacting genes when their relative positions on the chromosome are altered, as by inversion  
primary effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the process whereby the first few items on a list are learnt more rapidly than the middle items  
Raman effect  
      n   the change in wavelength of light that is scattered by electrons within a material. The effect is used in Raman spectroscopy for studying molecules  
     (C20: named after Sir Chandasekhara Raman (1888--1970), Indian physicist)  
ratchet effect  
      n     (Economics)   an effect that occurs when a price or wage increases as a result of temporary pressure but fails to fall back when the pressure is removed  
recency effect  
      n     (Psychol)   the phenomenon that when people are asked to recall in any order the items on a list, those that come at the end of the list are more likely to be recalled than the others  
ripple effect  
      n   the repercussions of an event or situation experienced far beyond its immediate location  
Schottky effect  
      n     (Physics)   a reduction in the energy required to remove an electron from a solid surface in a vacuum when an electric field is applied to the surface  
Seebeck effect     (German)  
      n   the phenomenon in which a current is produced in a circuit containing two or more different metals when the junctions between the metals are maintained at different temperatures,   (Also called)    thermoelectric effect      Compare       Peltier effect  
     (C19: named after Thomas Seebeck (1770--1831), German physicist)  
side effect  
      n  
1    any unwanted nontherapeutic effect caused by a drug  
   Compare       aftereffect       2  
2    any secondary effect, esp. an undesirable one  
skin effect  
      n   the tendency of alternating current to concentrate in the surface layer of a conductor, esp. at high frequencies, thus increasing its effective resistance  
sound effect  
      n   any sound artificially produced, reproduced from a recording, etc., to create a theatrical effect, such as the bringing together of two halves of a hollow coconut shell to simulate a horse's gallop; used in plays, films, etc.  
stage effect  
      n   a special effect created on the stage by lighting, sound, etc.  
thermoelectric effect  
      n      another name for the       Seebeck effect       Peltier effect  
Thomson effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which a temperature gradient along a metallic (or semiconductor) wire or strip causes an electric potential gradient to form along its length  
     (named after Sir William Thomson)  
tunnel effect  
      n     (Physics)   the phenomenon in which an object, usually an elementary particle, tunnels through a potential barrier even though it does not have sufficient energy to surmount the barrier. It is explained by wave mechanics and is the cause of alpha decay, field emission, and certain conduction processes in semiconductors  
Tyndall effect  
      n   the phenomenon in which light is scattered by particles of matter in its path. It enables a beam of light to become visible by illuminating dust particles, etc.  
     (C19: named after John Tyndall)  
Zeeman effect  
      n   the splitting of a spectral line of a substance into several closely spaced lines when the substance is placed in a magnetic field  
     (C20: named after Pieter Zeeman (1865--1943), Dutch physicist)  

English Collins Dictionary - English Definition & Thesaurus  

Collins

effect

  

      n  
1    aftermath, conclusion, consequence, end result, event, fruit, issue, outcome, result, upshot  
2    clout     (informal)   effectiveness, efficacy, efficiency, fact, force, influence, power, reality, strength, use, validity, vigour, weight  
3    drift, essence, impact, import, impression, meaning, purport, purpose, sense, significance, tenor  
4    action, enforcement, execution, force, implementation, operation  
5    in effect      actually, effectively, essentially, for practical purposes, in actuality, in fact, in reality, in truth, really, to all intents and purposes, virtually  
6    take effect      become operative, begin, come into force, produce results, work  
      vb  
7    accomplish, achieve, actuate, bring about, carry out, cause, complete, consummate, create, effectuate, execute, fulfil, give rise to, initiate, make, perform, produce  

English Collins Dictionary - English synonyms & Thesaurus  

Collaborative Dictionary     English Definition
adj.
large enough to have an effect or be important
[US] The series has aroused considerable interest.
exp.
not matter; have no value or effect; be useless
n.
The practice of monitoring the effects of medical drugs, especially in order to identify and evaluate previously unreported adverse reactions
[Med.] Ex: In his job as a pharmacovigilance officer, Andrew develops diagnostic tools to improve drug safety
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