self initiative meaning, self initiative definition | English Cobuild dictionary

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self

  
  ( selves    plural  )
1       n-count   Your self is your basic personality or nature, especially considered in terms of what you are really like as a person.  
usu adj N  
You're looking more like your usual self..., She was back to her old self again.     
2       n-count   A person's self is the essential part of their nature which makes them different from everyone and everything else.  
usu adj N  
I want to explore and get in touch with my inner self...     


self-  
1       comb in adj and n   Self- is used to form words which indicate that you do something to yourself or by yourself.  
He is a self-proclaimed racist., ...self-destructive behaviour...     
2       comb in adj and n   Self- is used to form words which describe something such as a device that does something automatically by itself.  
...a self-loading pistol.     
self-absorbed     
Someone who is self-absorbed thinks so much about things concerning themselves that they do not notice other people or the things around them.      adj  
self-access     
In a school or college, a self-access centre is a place where students can choose and use books, tapes, or other materials.  
  (BRIT)      adj  
...a self-access study centre.     
self-addressed     
A self-addressed envelope is an envelope which you have written your address on and which you send to someone in another envelope so that they can send something back to you.      adj   usu ADJ n  
Please enclose a stamped self-addressed envelope.     
self-adhesive     
Something that is self-adhesive is covered on one side with a sticky substance like glue, so that it will stick to surfaces.      adj   usu ADJ n  
...self-adhesive labels.     
self-aggrandizement  
in BRIT, also use self-aggrandisement      If you say that someone is guilty of self-aggrandizement, you mean that they do certain things in order to make themselves more powerful, wealthy, or important.      n-uncount  
  (disapproval)   
He was interested in service, not self-aggrandisement.     
self-appointed     
A self-appointed leader or ruler has taken the position of leader or ruler without anyone else asking them or choosing them to have it.      adj   usu ADJ n  
...the new self-appointed leaders of the movement.     
self-assembly     
Self-assembly is used to refer to furniture and other goods that you buy in parts and that you have to put together yourself.      adj   usu ADJ n  
...a range of self-assembly bedroom furniture.     
self-assertion     
Self-assertion is confidence that you have in speaking firmly about your opinions and demanding the rights that you believe you should have.      n-uncount  
...her silence and lack of self-assertion...     
self-assertive     
Someone who is self-assertive acts in a confident way, speaking firmly about their opinions and demanding the rights that they believe they should have.      adj  
If you want good relationships, you must have the confidence to be self-assertive when required.     
self-assessment     
In Britain, self-assessment refers to a system for paying tax in which people have to fill in an official form giving details of how much money they have earned in the previous year.      n-sing  
self-assurance     
Someone who has self-assurance shows confidence in the things that they say and do because they are sure of their abilities.      n-uncount   (=self-confidence)  
self-assured     
Someone who is self-assured shows confidence in what they say and do because they are sure of their own abilities.      adj   (=self-confident)  
He's a self-assured, confident negotiator.     
self-aware     
Someone who is self-aware knows and judges their own character well.      adj   usu v-link ADJ  
Doing a degree has increased my confidence and I feel much more self-aware.     
  self-awareness      n-uncount  
It is assumed that you are interested in achieving greater self-awareness.     
self-belief     
Self-belief is confidence in your own abilities or judgment.      n-uncount   (=self-confidence)  
self-catering     
If you go on a self-catering holiday or you stay in self-catering accommodation, you stay in a place where you have to make your own meals.  
  (BRIT)      n-uncount   usu N n  
The self-catering flats are usually reserved for postgraduate students.     
self-centred     
in AM, use self-centered     
Someone who is self-centred is only concerned with their own wants and needs and never thinks about other people.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
He was self-centred, but he wasn't cruel.     
self-confessed     
If you describe someone as a self-confessed murderer or a self-confessed romantic, for example, you mean that they admit openly that they are a murderer or a romantic.      adj   ADJ n  
The self-confessed drug addict was arrested 13 months ago...     
self-confidence     
If you have self-confidence, you behave confidently because you feel sure of your abilities or value.      n-uncount  
With the end of my love affair, I lost all the self-confidence I once had...     
self-confident     
Someone who is self-confident behaves confidently because they feel sure of their abilities or value.      adj   (=self-assured)  
She'd blossomed into a self-confident young woman.     
self-congratulation     
If someone keeps emphasizing how well they have done or how good they are, you can refer to their behaviour as self-congratulation.      n-uncount  
  (disapproval)   
This is not a matter for self-congratulation.     
self-congratulatory     
If you describe someone or their behaviour as self-congratulatory, you mean that they keep emphasizing how well they have done or how good they are.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
Officials were self-congratulatory about how well the day had gone.     
self-conscious  
1       adj   Someone who is self-conscious is easily embarrassed and nervous because they feel that everyone is looking at them and judging them.  
usu v-link ADJ, oft ADJ about n  
I felt a bit self-conscious in my swimming costume..., Bess was self-conscious about being shorter than her two friends.     
  self-consciously      adv   ADV with v  
She was fiddling self-consciously with her wedding ring.     
  self-consciousness      n-uncount  
...her painful self-consciousness.     
2       adj   If you describe someone or something as self-conscious, you mean that they are strongly aware of who or what they are.  
FORMAL   Putting the work together is a very self-conscious process.     
  self-consciously      adv   ADV adj  
The world which the book inhabits seems too self-consciously literary, too introverted...     
self-contained  
1       adj   You can describe someone or something as self-contained when they are complete and separate and do not need help or resources from outside.  
He seems completely self-contained and he doesn't miss you when you're not there..., ...self-contained economic blocs.     
2       adj   Self-contained accommodation such as a flat has all its own facilities, so that a person living there does not have to share rooms such as a kitchen or bathroom with other people.  
usu ADJ n  
self-contradictory     
If you say or write something that is self-contradictory, you make two statements which cannot both be true.      adj  
He is notorious for making unexpected, often self-contradictory, comments.     
self-control     
Self-control is the ability to not show your feelings or not do the things that your feelings make you want to do.      n-uncount  
I began to wish I'd shown more self-control.     
self-controlled     
Someone who is self-controlled is able to not show their feelings or not do the things that their feelings make them want to do.      adj  
My father, who had always been very self-controlled, became bad-tempered.     
self-deception     
Self-deception involves allowing yourself to believe something about yourself that is not true, because the truth is more unpleasant.      n-uncount   (=self-delusion)  
Human beings have an infinite capacity for self-deception.     
self-declared     
Self-declared means the same as self-proclaimed.      adj   ADJ n  
...the self-declared interim president..., He is a self-declared populist.     
self-defeating     
A plan or action that is self-defeating is likely to cause problems or difficulties instead of producing useful results.      adj  
Dishonesty is ultimately self-defeating.     
self-defence  
in AM, use self-defense     
1       n-uncount   Self-defence is the use of force to protect yourself against someone who is attacking you.  
usu with supp, oft in/of N  
Richards claimed he acted in self-defence after Pagett opened fire on him during a siege., ...courses in karate or some other means of self-defence.     
2       n-uncount   Self-defence is the action of protecting yourself against something bad.  
Jokes can be a form of self-defence.     
self-delusion     
Self-delusion is the state of having a false idea about yourself or the situation you are in.      n-uncount  
...the grandiose self-delusion of the addict.     
self-denial     
Self-denial is the habit of refusing to do or have things that you would like, either because you cannot afford them, or because you believe it is morally good for you not to do them or have them.      n-uncount  
Should motherhood necessarily mean sacrifice and self-denial?     
self-denying     
Someone who is self-denying refuses to do or have things that they would like, either because they cannot afford them, or because they believe it is morally good for them not to do them or have them.      adj  
They believed that good parents should be self-sacrificing and self-denying...     
self-deprecating     
If you describe someone's behaviour as self-deprecating, you mean that they criticize themselves or represent themselves as foolish in a light-hearted way.      adj   usu ADJ n  
Sharon tells the story of that night with self-deprecating humour.     
self-destruct        ( self-destructs    3rd person present)   ( self-destructing    present participle)   ( self-destructed    past tense & past participle  ) If someone self-destructs, they do something that seriously damages their chances of success.      verb  
They're going to be famous, but unless something happens, they're going to self-destruct...      V  
self-destructive     
Self-destructive behaviour is harmful to the person who behaves in that way.      adj  
He had a reckless, self-destructive streak.     
self-determination     
Self-determination is the right of a country to be independent, instead of being controlled by a foreign country, and to choose its own form of government.      n-uncount   (=independence)  
self-discipline     
Self-discipline is the ability to control yourself and to make yourself work hard or behave in a particular way without needing anyone else to tell you what to do.      n-uncount  
Exercising at home alone requires a tremendous amount of self-discipline.     
self-disciplined     
Someone who is self-disciplined has the ability to control themselves and to make themselves work hard or behave in a particular way without needing anyone else to tell them what to do.      adj  
Most religions teach you to be truthful and self-disciplined.     
self-doubt     
Self-doubt is a lack of confidence in yourself and your abilities.      n-uncount  
  (Antonym: confidence)   
self-drive  
1       adj   A self-drive car is one which you hire and drive yourself.  
  (BRIT)   ADJ n  
Any holiday in the USA and Canada is enhanced by renting a self-drive car.     
in AM, use rental car     
2       adj   A self-drive holiday is one where you drive yourself to the place where you are staying, rather than being taken there by plane or coach.  
  (BRIT)   ADJ n  
...the growth in popularity of self-drive camping holidays.     
self-educated     
People who are self-educated have acquired knowledge or a skill by themselves, rather than being taught it by someone else such as a teacher at school.      adj  
...a self-educated man from a working class background.     
self-effacement     
Someone's self-effacement is their unwillingness to talk about themselves or draw attention to themselves.      n-uncount  
He was modest to the point of self-effacement.     
self-effacing     
Someone who is self-effacing does not like talking about themselves or drawing attention to themselves.      adj  
As women we tend to be self-effacing and make light of what we have achieved.     
self-employed     
If you are self-employed, you organize your own work and taxes and are paid by people for a service you provide, rather than being paid a regular salary by a person or a firm.     (BUSINESS)      adj  
There are no paid holidays or sick leave if you are self-employed., ...a self-employed builder.     
      The self-employed are people who are self-employed., n-plural   the N  
We want more support for the self-employed.     
self-esteem     
Your self-esteem is how you feel about yourself. For example, if you have low self-esteem, you do not like yourself, you do not think that you are a valuable person, and therefore you do not behave confidently.      n-uncount  
Poor self-esteem is at the centre of many of the difficulties we experience in our relationships.     
self-evident     
A fact or situation that is self-evident is so obvious that there is no need for proof or explanation.      adj   usu v-link ADJ   (=obvious)  
It is self-evident that we will never have enough resources to meet the demand...     
  self-evidently      adv   ADV adj, ADV with cl/group  
The task was self-evidently impossible...     
self-examination  
1       n-uncount   Self-examination is thought that you give to your own character and actions, for example in order to judge whether you have been behaving in a way that is acceptable to your own set of values.  
also a N  
The events in Los Angeles have sparked a new national self-examination...     
2       n-uncount   Self-examination is the act of examining your own body to check whether or not you have any signs of a particular disease or illness.  
Breast self-examination is invaluable for detecting cancer in its very early stages.     
self-explanatory     
Something that is self-explanatory is clear and easy to understand without needing any extra information or explanation.      adj   usu v-link ADJ  
I hope the graphs on the following pages are self-explanatory.     
self-expression     
Self-expression is the expression of your personality, feelings, or opinions, for example through an artistic activity such as drawing or dancing.      n-uncount  
Clothes are a fundamental form of self-expression.     
self-fulfilling     
If you describe a statement or belief about the future as self-fulfilling, you mean that what is said or believed comes true because people expect it to come true.      adj  
Fear of failure can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.     
self-governing     
A self-governing region or organization is governed or run by its own people rather than by the people of another region or organization.      adj  
...a self-governing province...     
self-government     
Self-government is government of a country or region by its own people rather than by others.      n-uncount  
self-help  
1       n-uncount   Self-help consists of people providing support and help for each other in an informal way, rather than relying on the government, authorities, or other official organizations.  
oft N n  
She helped her Mum set up a self-help group for parents with over-weight children.     
2       n-uncount   Self-help consists of doing things yourself to try and solve your own problems without depending on other people.  
...a society that encourages competitiveness and self-help among the very young., ...a self-help book.     
self-image        ( self-images    plural  ) Your self-image is the set of ideas you have about your own qualities and abilities.      n-count   usu sing  
Children who have a positive self-image are less likely to present behaviour and discipline problems.     
self-important     
If you say that someone is self-important, you disapprove of them because they behave as if they are more important than they really are.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
(=pompous)  
He was self-important, vain and ignorant.     
  self-importance      n-uncount  
Many visitors complained of his bad manners and self-importance.     
self-imposed     
A self-imposed restriction, task, or situation is one that you have deliberately created or accepted for yourself.      adj   usu ADJ n  
He returned home in the summer of 1974 after eleven years of self-imposed exile...     
self-indulgence        ( self-indulgences    plural  ) Self-indulgence is the act of allowing yourself to have or do the things that you enjoy very much.      n-var  
Going to the movies in the afternoon is one of my big self-indulgences.     
self-indulgent     
If you say that someone is self-indulgent, you mean that they allow themselves to have or do the things that they enjoy very much.      adj  
To buy flowers for myself seems wildly self-indulgent.     
self-inflicted     
A self-inflicted wound or injury is one that you do to yourself deliberately.      adj  
He is being treated for a self-inflicted gunshot wound.     
self-interest     
If you accuse someone of self-interest, you disapprove of them because they always want to do what is best for themselves rather than for anyone else.      n-uncount  
  (disapproval)   
Their current protests are motivated purely by self-interest.     
self-interested     
If you describe someone as self-interested, you disapprove of them because they always want to do what is best for themselves rather than for other people.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
Narrowly self-interested behaviour is ultimately self-defeating.     
self-knowledge     
Self-knowledge is knowledge that you have about your own character and nature.      n-uncount  
The more self-knowledge we have, the more control we can exert over our feelings and behaviour.     
self-loathing     
If someone feels self-loathing, they feel great dislike and disgust for themselves.      n-uncount  
self-made     
Self-made is used to describe people who have become successful and rich through their own efforts, especially if they started life without money, education, or high social status.      adj   usu ADJ n  
He is a self-made man., ...a self-made millionaire.     
self-obsessed     
If you describe someone as self-obsessed, you are criticizing them for spending too much time thinking about themselves or their own problems.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
self-parody        ( self-parodies    plural  ) Self-parody is a way of performing or behaving in which you exaggerate and make fun of the way you normally perform or behave.      n-var  
By the end of his life, Presley's vocals often descended close to self-parody.     
self-pity     
Self-pity is a feeling of unhappiness that you have about yourself and your problems, especially when this is unnecessary or greatly exaggerated.      n-uncount  
  (disapproval)   
Throughout, he showed no trace of self-pity.     
self-pitying     
Someone who is self-pitying is full of self-pity.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
At the risk of sounding self-pitying, I'd say it has been harder on me than it has on Joanne.     
self-portrait        ( self-portraits    plural  ) A self-portrait is a drawing, painting, or written description that you do of yourself.      n-count  
self-possessed     
Someone who is self-possessed is calm and confident and in control of their emotions.      adj   (=self-assured)  
She is clearly the most articulate and self-possessed member of her family.     
self-possession     
Self-possession is the quality of being self-possessed.      n-uncount   (=self-assurance)  
She found her customary self-possession had deserted her.     
self-preservation     
Self-preservation is the action of keeping yourself safe or alive in a dangerous situation, often without thinking about what you are doing.      n-uncount  
The police have the same human urge for self-preservation as the rest of us.     
self-proclaimed  
1       adj   Self-proclaimed is used to show that someone has given themselves a particular title or status rather than being given it by other people.  
ADJ n   (=self-confessed)  
...a self-proclaimed expert..., He is President of his own self-proclaimed republic.     
2       adj   Self-proclaimed is used to show that someone says themselves that they are a type of person which most people would be embarrassed or ashamed to be.  
ADJ n   (=self-declared)  
One of the prisoners is a self-proclaimed racist who opened fire on a crowd four years ago.     
self-raising flour     
Self-raising flour is flour that makes cakes rise when they are cooked because it has chemicals added to it.  
  (BRIT)      n-uncount  
in AM, use self-rising flour     
self-regulation     
Self-regulation is the controlling of a process or activity by the people or organizations that are involved in it rather than by an outside organization such as the government.      n-uncount  
Competition between companies is too fierce for self-regulation to work.     
self-regulatory      , self-regulating  
Self-regulatory systems, organizations, or activities are controlled by the people involved in them, rather than by outside organizations or rules.      adj   usu ADJ n  
For a self-regulatory system to work, the consent of all those involved is required.     
self-reliance     
Self-reliance is the ability to do things and make decisions by yourself, without needing other people to help you.      n-uncount   (=independence)  
People learned self-reliance because they had to...     
self-reliant     
If you are self-reliant, you are able to do things and make decisions by yourself, without needing other people to help you.      adj   (=independent)  
She is intelligent and self-reliant, speaking her mind and not suffering fools gladly.     
self-respect     
Self-respect is a feeling of confidence and pride in your own ability and worth.      n-uncount  
They have lost not only their jobs, but their homes, their self-respect and even their reason for living.     
self-respecting     
You can use self-respecting with a noun describing a particular type of person to indicate that something is typical of, or necessary for, that type of person.      adj   ADJ n  
He died as any self-respecting gangster should<endash>in a hail of bullets...     
self-restraint     
If you show self-restraint, you do not do something even though you would like to do it, because you think it would be better not to.      n-uncount  
self-righteous     
If you describe someone as self-righteous, you disapprove of them because they are convinced that they are right in their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour and that other people are wrong.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
He is critical of the monks, whom he considers narrow-minded and self-righteous.     
  self-righteousness      n-uncount  
...her smug self-righteousness.     
self-rising flour     
Self-rising flour is flour that makes cakes rise when they are cooked because it has chemicals added to it.  
  (AM)      n-uncount  
in BRIT, use self-raising flour     
self-rule     
Self-rule is the same as self-government.      n-uncount  
The agreement gives the territory limited self-rule.     
self-sacrifice     
Self-sacrifice is the giving up of what you want so that other people can have what they need or want.      n-uncount  
I thanked my parents for all their self-sacrifice on my behalf.     
self-sacrificing     
Someone who is self-sacrificing gives up what they want so that other people can have what they need or want.      adj  
He was a generous self-sacrificing man.     
self-same      , selfsame  
You use self-same when you want to emphasize that the person or thing mentioned is exactly the same as the one mentioned previously.      adj   ADJ n     (emphasis)    You find yourself worshipped by the self-same people who beat you up at school.     
self-satisfaction     
Self-satisfaction is the feeling you have when you are self-satisfied.      n-uncount  
  (disapproval)   
(=smugness)  
He tried hard not to smile in smug self-satisfaction.     
self-satisfied     
If you describe someone as self-satisfied, you mean that they are too pleased with themselves about their achievements or their situation and they think that nothing better is possible.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
(=smug)  
She handed the cigar back to Jason with a self-satisfied smile.     
self-seeking     
If you describe someone as self-seeking, you disapprove of them because they are interested only in doing things which give them an advantage over other people.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
He said that democracy would open the way for self-seeking politicians to abuse the situation.     
self-service     
A self-service shop, restaurant, or garage is one where you get things for yourself rather than being served by another person.      adj  
self-serving     
If you describe someone as self-serving, you are critical of them because they are only interested in what they can get for themselves.      adj  
  (disapproval)   
...corrupt, self-serving politicians.     
self-standing  
1       adj   An object or structure that is self-standing is not supported by other objects or structures.  
...self-standing plastic cases.     
2       adj   A company or organization that is self-standing is independent of other companies or organizations.     (BUSINESS)  
Five separate companies, all operating as self-standing units, are now one.     
self-study     
Self-study is study that you do on your own, without a teacher.      n-uncount   oft N n  
Individuals can enrol on self-study courses in the university's language institute.     
self-styled     
If you describe someone as a self-styled leader or expert, you disapprove of them because they claim to be a leader or expert but they do not actually have the right to call themselves this.      adj   ADJ n     (disapproval)    Two of those arrested are said to be self-styled area commanders...     
self-sufficiency     
Self-sufficiency is the state of being self-sufficient.      n-uncount  
self-sufficient  
1       adj   If a country or group is self-sufficient, it is able to produce or make everything that it needs.  
usu v-link ADJ  
This enabled the country to become self-sufficient in sugar..., Using traditional methods poor farmers can be virtually self-sufficient.     
2       adj   Someone who is self-sufficient is able to live happily without anyone else.  
Although she had various boyfriends, Madeleine was, and remains, fiercely self-sufficient...     
self-supporting     
Self-supporting is used to describe organizations, schemes, and people who earn enough money to not need financial help from anyone else.      adj  
The income from visitors makes the museum self-supporting...     
self-sustaining     
A self-sustaining process or system is able to continue by itself without anyone or anything else becoming involved.      adj  
Asia's emerging economies will be on a self-sustaining cycle of growth...     
self-taught     
If you are self-taught, you have learned a skill by yourself rather than being taught it by someone else such as a teacher at school.      adj  
...a self-taught musician.     
self-will     
Someone's self-will is their determination to do what they want without caring what other people think.      n-uncount  
She had a little core of self-will.     
self-willed     
Someone who is self-willed is determined to do the things that they want to do and will not take advice from other people.      adj  
He was very independent and self-willed.     
self-worth     
Self-worth is the feeling that you have good qualities and have achieved good things.      n-uncount  
Try not to link your sense of self-worth to the opinions of others.     
Translation English - Cobuild Collins Dictionary  
Collaborative Dictionary     English Cobuild
n.
The ability to make decisions and take action without waiting for someone to tell you what to do
I showed my initiative when I became a group leader in class.
n.
self-taken picture
[Slang];[Fam.]
adj.
cool, balanced, self-confident
e.g. a very together woman
exp.
go crazy; get angry; lose self-control
E.g.: I will lose it if we keep listening to this song.
n.
A tenacious confidence;mental toughness,self-belief,deep respect
exp.
phrase meant to emphasize the speaker's self-assurance
syn.: you can bet on it; trust me; you can count on it; I'm telling you...
n.
The practice of restricting the amount of food a person eats (self-imposed starvation seen with anorexia nervosa) in order to consume greater amounts of alcohol or of purging (as seen with bulimia nervosa) to try to reduce caloric intake to offset the calories consumed in alcohol.
[Med.] "Drunkorexic" behaviors most often stem from the fear of weight gain from alcohol.

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"Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced Learners 4th edition published in 2003 © HarperCollins Publishers 1987, 1995, 2001, 2003 and Collins A-Z Thesaurus 1st edition first published in 1995 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995"